It is directly related to the term "organization".
Later chapters will describe additional emergent properties of ecosystems and social systems. Hierarchical Organization and Emergent Properties Biological systems have a hierarchy of organizational levels that extends from molecules and cells to individual organisms, populations and ecosystems.
Every individual plant and animal is a collection of cells; every population is a collection of individual organisms of the same species; and every ecosystem consists of populations of different species.
The most important levels of biological organization for human ecology are populations and ecosystems. Each level of biological organization from molecules to ecosystems has characteristic behaviours which emerge at that level.
These distinct behaviours, called emergent properties, function synergistically at each level of organization to give that level a life of its own which is greater than the sum of its parts.
This happens because all the parts fit together in ways that allow the system as a whole to function in a manner that promotes its survival. Because the parts are interconnected, the behaviour of every part is shaped by feedback loops through the rest of the system.
A mixture of positive and negative feedback promotes growth and change in the system as a whole. Emergent properties are easiest to perceive in individual organisms. In simple organisms such as jellyfish, we can identify basic emergent properties such as growth, development of different tissues and organs, homeostasis, reproduction and death.
The richness of expression of emergent properties increases with the complexity of the organism. Visual images are not a property of the component cells in organisms; the experience of visual images emerges at the level of an entire organism.
Emotions such as fear, anger, anxiety, hate, happiness and love are also emergent properties. The sigmoid curve for population growth, population regulation, genetic evolution and social organization are examples of emergent properties at the population level of organization.
They are not properties of the individuals in a population. They emerge as special properties of populations because every individual in a population is affected by what happens in the population as a whole. Taking population regulation as an example, individual plants and animals have the potential to live a long life, producing a large number of offspring.
However, the actual survival and reproduction of each individual depends on how many other individuals are in the population and how this number compares to carrying capacity. If the total population overshoots carrying capacity, some individuals in the population are compelled to die from lack of food.
The result is population regulation within the limits of carrying capacity - an emergent property of populations. What about emergent properties of ecosystems? The component parts of ecosystems are all limited by their connections to other parts of the ecosystem.
More emergent properties of ecosystems will be described in later chapters.
Components at one level of organization interact primarily with other components at the same level. They do so by responding to information that emerges from those components. Protein molecules in the cell interact with other molecules in ways that respond to the structure and behaviour of the molecules, not the atoms of which they are composed.
Proteins have an intricate three-dimensional structure that emerges at the level of the molecule and provides the basis for interaction with other molecules.
When cats hunt mice, they do not process information on all the parts of a mouse in order to detect it. Instead, they respond to key features that emerge at the level of the whole mouse: They do not process information about the cellular structure of these features.
Mice respond to cats in a similar way. One emergent property of ecosystems and social systems is counterintuitive behaviour. They sometimes do the opposite of what we expect. The purpose of public housing was to reduce poverty by providing decent housing to low-income people at a price they could afford.
However, cheap housing encouraged unskilled people to move from rural areas to cities even when there were no jobs. The large number of unemployed people turned public housing into ghettos of poverty.
The effect of public housing was the opposite of its intended purpose because what happened depended not only on the housing but also on feedback loops through other parts of the social system. The story of forest fire protection provides an example of counterintuitive behaviour in ecosystems.
Forest managers tried to reduce fire damage by putting out fires. The result was even more fire damage. Details of this story are in Chapter 6. Ecosystems and social systems are sometimes counterintuitive because they are not easily understood by people whose main existence is at a different level of organization - the level of an individual inside the ecosystem and social system.
This difference is one important reason why people find it difficult to predict the ultimate consequences of their actions on ecosystems.Levels of Complexity of biological organisms is a topic included at the beginning of some biology courses.
It is useful to take the human body as an example of a biological organism. Levels of complexity can be listed as elements (atoms), molecules, organelles, cells (smallest independent units of life), tissues, organs, organ systems (body .
Biology Human Anatomy.
Anatomy • The art of separating the parts of an least complex most complex • Organism-a individual living being. Chemical level Fig CHON-most abundant elements. Cellular level. . Is Picking Morels Sustainable? Absolutely.
It is like picking apples off of an apple tree. The tree will continue to thrive, much of its fruit will fall to the ground and rot, and perhaps one of the s of apple seeds will eventually yield a new tree. - Human are complex organism because human are made up of by a million individual system.
- Human beings have various types of cell which are specialized. - With proper organisation of cells, life processes can be carried out affectively. Chromosomes - Pull up Those Genes Chromosomes are the things that make organisms what they are. They carry all of the information used to help a cell grow, thrive, and reproduce.
Chromosomes are made up of plombier-nemours.comts of DNA in specific patterns are . The relative pronoun which refers to inanimate things and to animals: The house, which we had seen only from a distance, impressed us even more as we approached.
The horses which pulled the coach were bay geldings. Formerly, which referred to persons, but this use, while still heard (a man which I know), is plombier-nemours.comry to the teachings of some usage guides, which introduces both.